Diversity in the classroom.

Diversity in the  classroom is  considered to be: 

A diverse group of students refers to the unique qualities or attitudes that each student poses. These unique qualities or attitudes may be, their learning styles, choice of sports, choice recreation, skin color, cultural background, personality, giftedness and religious beliefs. Diversity is always present in a classroom, as a result, the onus is on the teacher to embrace it and make positive use of it. The teacher is now in the position to demonstrate to the students that he or she accepts the diversity that is present among the students. It is particularly important to demonstrate to the students that you have accepted the  diversity that is present because students are like sponge, they absorb the behaviours and body language that is emitted around them.    When people accept diversity, they recognize and respect the fact that people are different and that these differences are generally good for the ethos of the classroom. When the teacher accept the diversity, this will allow the students to feel more comfortable and fit in to the classroom setting and this will in turn create a more positive  classroom environment. What teachers also need to keep in mind is that children develop their identity and attitudes through experiences with their bodies, social environments, and their cognitive developmental stages.     Image

 Ways  in which teachers  can promote  diversity?

In order to have true success, students must be facilitated in an environment that is conducive  to learning. Teachers have the responsibility to devise ways to make the students feel safe, respected and comfortable. The society in which the students live and operate is becoming more and  more diverse each day, as a result it  is  important  that  student  learn  how  to  value  diversity which  will aid  in preparing  them to succeed. This begins with teachers demonstrating how to accept and promote diversity. Teachers need to:

  • Take the time to learn about your students’ cultural background.

Teachers can do this by allowing students to talk about their way of life : the things that the practice. It  is  recommended that the students are  placed  in  groups where they can  have   a cultural exchange. Students are expected to participate in activities that they learned about.

  • Allow students  to express their religious views.
  • Allow time for the students to learn about each other and what they bring  to the  classroom.

Allow students to give an overview of the  person that they  are , their likes and  dislikes.

  • Allow persons that the students might  be able to  connect with Or relate to, make presentations to them.

These can be people from different races, influential people in their society, their role models, and people with disabilities.

  • Cater for students varied learning styles.  Weather it may be:

Visual, oral, verbal

tactile, kinesthetic

inductive, deductive.

Incorporate varying teaching techniques to reach as many students as possible

  • Never tolerate behaviors that belittle other persons.
  •  Establish an environment that does not make anyone uncomfortable or feel threatened
  • Let go of  generalizations.
  • Remember that one student cannot represent an entire group. (One person cannot represent all black, white, Chines, Indians, Filipinos, Vietnamese ect. ).

Parents also have a role to play, they need to demonstrate positive attitudes that the students will imitate. Encourage their children to treat other with love and respect regardless of the skin color, hair type, language ect. Children must also be encouraged to perform king deeds whenever the opportunities presents itself.

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The Importance of Meaning Vocabulary.

       Meaning vocabulary is a term that describes how people learn the meaning of words. Children can learn the meanings of words by using context clues, word part instruction and graphic organizers. Meaning vocabulary entails words for which their meanings are understood and it is an important component of comprehension. Direct instruction in meaning vocabulary is essential. If vocabulary is not developed, children will be unprepared to handle vocabulary demands of content-area subjects. Its significance is also displayed in comprehension and interaction with others. Meaning vocabulary helps to build social skills, confidence and self-esteem in children. It also enables children to use context clues to decipher word meaning. It helps children to construct more interesting stories and to communicate effectively with their peers and just about anyone with whom they interact. The more words they know, the more aptly they will be able to communicate their knowledge and feelings to others.

Activities

1st Strategy-

            The term Meaning Vocabulary entails how individuals learn the meaning of words. Therefore, in an effort to facilitate meaning vocabulary one can employ the use of Word Part Instruction, Context Clues and Graphic Organizers.

            Graphic Organizers– enable individuals to visualize the relationships between words and their possible meanings. This involves the use of semantic maps and word webs, which can help students to organize ideas. A graphic organizer may be used to allow the students to tell  the first things that come to mind when they hear a particular word. Lets take for example,  the  word “ENERGY.”

Image

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2nd  Strategy

Present Vocabulary in Context- This strategy may be used in storytelling. First, contextualize the word within the story then have the students say the words. After that, provide the children with a student friendly explanation of the word, then present examples of the word used in contexts different from the story context. After this is completed, engage the children in activities that get them to interact with the words then read them the story.

For example, the word “on” could be place on the chalkboard and have the students repeat the word. Then, show them a picture of a ball on a table and ask them the position of the ball in relation to the table. After which you would tell them the meaning of on. Next, you would use the word “on” in different sentences, e.g. Put the pot on the stove. Or, Did you put on your socks? The next step is an activity which will allow using the word. So, you could place a mat on the floor and ask a student to step on it, the class will try to identify using sentences, when he is on the mat and when he is on the floor. Once they have gotten familiar with the word, you then read the story to the class. This activity will allow them to fully understand the meaning behind the story.

 

The Importance of Word Recognition in improving literacy.

ImageLiteracy is probably the single-most important part of education. Devoid of literacy, all other learning processes would be impossible. It involves using reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing to gain more knowledge. Without the ability to do any of these skills, there is absolutely no way to acquire more knowledge. Literacy is very crucial for learning as in schools Language Arts teachers are not the only ones who are stressing the importance of literacy. Despite the fact that the Language Arts teachers may be the only ones truly teaching literacy it is the job of all educators to smooth the progress of literacy learning. Literacy must come before any other learning can occur and we cannot grow as a society without literacy. In this essay the importance of word recognition and meaning vocabulary will be explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

Word recognition according to LINCS is “the ability of a reader to recognize written words properly and virtually effortlessly”. It is sometimes referred to as isolated word recognition because it involves a reader’s ability to recognize words individually from a list that is, without needed similar words for contextual help. With little effort word recognition is the main component of fluent reading and it can be improved by practicing with flash cards, lists, and word grids. Word recognition is important because it help individuals to read fluently and be able recognize words easily. For example, a teacher may use flash cards when executing his/her lesson in order for the students to recognize a variety of words and by using this method, wherever those students see those words they will effortlessly become familiar with them. Word recognition is also imperative because in order for a child to develop his/her vocabulary the child must be able to recognize words thus enabling them to use words confidently.

Activities

Some activities that can help to improve word recognition are:

1st Strategy

  • Context clues-

Context Clues is an effective method of word recognition since with the combination of other clues such as phonics and word parts accurately, word identification is possible. There is however, one downside to this strategy which is the fact that they may not be specific enough to effectively foresee the exact word. Never the less, it allows readers to crosscheck the words they have identified.

Context clues may be divided into 3 different types:

Semantic or Meaning Clues-

This involves the process where in reading a story, the child/ individual will develop an expectation of what types of words are expected which are associated with the topic. For example in reading about a dog, a student will expect that the story will contain words such as bark, tail and fur. There is also the sentence context clues “which are more specific.” Therefore, one might have a sentence “My dog likes to ________,” and given this sentence the students are able to fill in the things they already know about dogs such as play, eat, roll, bite, and bark.

Syntactic or Word Order Clues-

This involves the knowledge word order and the function of various words, there are three types:

  1. “Patterns and functions of words, e.g. His truculent criticism of your painting betrayed some jealousy. By looking at the position of the word, the reader can judge that the word modifies a noun and therefore it is an adjective. This can limit the choice of meaning he is going to make.”
  2. “Inflectional clues, e.g. Mrs. Ames scrounged around the empty lot for sharp objects. The inflection -ed shows that scrounged must be an action (a verb) indicating what Mrs. Ames did in the past.”
  3. “Markers. A verb marker (was, had, will, etc.), for example, indicates that a verb follows. A noun marker (the, a, an, etc.) shows that a noun follows, e.g. They were jubilating about his amazing recovery.”

Picture Clues-

This is where illustrations such as pictures and drawings are used to aid in the identification of words. Therefore, if there is a photo/picture of a dog leaping with an accompanied text, then the most possible word that would come to mind is jump.

 

 

 

2nd Strategy

  • Rhyming  and word family:

            Rhyming and Word Family is also an important strategy to enable word recognition. Firstly, it must be noted that words are grouped into families which share the same sounds and common letters. For example mop, shop, and top are a part of the same word family because they have “op” at the end. With this in mind, teachers can use r

hymes in games and also nursery rhymes to introduce and clarify word recognition. For example in the nursery rhyme “Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle..” the teacher can use the word “cat” to introduce words in that family such as “mat, sat, bat and rat,” while rhyming “cat.”


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References

Andayani,A,k .Semantic and Syntactic Clues as Vocabulary Strategies in Reading         Comprehension. Available at:             http://www.angelfire.com/journal/fsulimelight/context.html. Retrieved 2013.

Elsworth,S. What Is the Difference Between Sight Vocabulary & Meaning Vocabulary?.           Available   at:vocabulary_.html#ixzz2NHMjoSYT. 1999.

Power,B. What Are the Seven Reading Comprehension Strategies?. Available at:

http://www.choiceliteracy.com/articles-detail-view.php?id=85. 2013.

Word Recognition Skills and Strategies. Available at:     http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/rec.html. 1997

Wolf,L. Word Recognition Skills & Strategies. Available           at:http://www.ehow.com/list_6681356_word-recognition-            skills-   strategies.html#ixzz2NH4jLDNM. 2013.

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The Importance of Word Recognition in improving literacy.

ImageLiteracy is probably the single-most important part of education. Devoid of literacy, all other learning processes would be impossible. It involves using reading, writing, speaking, listening, and viewing to gain more knowledge. Without the ability to do any of these skills, there is absolutely no way to acquire more knowledge. Literacy is very crucial for learning as in schools Language Arts teachers are not the only ones who are stressing the importance of literacy. Despite the fact that the Language Arts teachers may be the only ones truly teaching literacy it is the job of all educators to smooth the progress of literacy learning. Literacy must come before any other learning can occur and we cannot grow as a society without literacy. In this essay the importance of word recognition and meaning vocabulary will be explained in the subsequent paragraphs.

Word recognition according to LINCS is “the ability of a reader to recognize written words properly and virtually effortlessly”. It is sometimes referred to as isolated word recognition because it involves a reader’s ability to recognize words individually from a list that is, without needed similar words for contextual help. With little effort word recognition is the main component of fluent reading and it can be improved by practicing with flash cards, lists, and word grids. Word recognition is important because it help individuals to read fluently and be able recognize words easily. For example, a teacher may use flash cards when executing his/her lesson in order for the students to recognize a variety of words and by using this method, wherever those students see those words they will effortlessly become familiar with them. Word recognition is also imperative because in order for a child to develop his/her vocabulary the child must be able to recognize words thus enabling them to use words confidently.

Activities

Some activities that can help to improve word recognition are:

1st Strategy

  • Context clues-

Context Clues is an effective method of word recognition since with the combination of other clues such as phonics and word parts accurately, word identification is possible. There is however, one downside to this strategy which is the fact that they may not be specific enough to effectively foresee the exact word. Never the less, it allows readers to crosscheck the words they have identified.

Context clues may be divided into 3 different types:

Semantic or Meaning Clues-

This involves the process where in reading a story, the child/ individual will develop an expectation of what types of words are expected which are associated with the topic. For example in reading about a dog, a student will expect that the story will contain words such as bark, tail and fur. There is also the sentence context clues “which are more specific.” Therefore, one might have a sentence “My dog likes to ________,” and given this sentence the students are able to fill in the things they already know about dogs such as play, eat, roll, bite, and bark.

Syntactic or Word Order Clues-

This involves the knowledge word order and the function of various words, there are three types:

  1. “Patterns and functions of words, e.g. His truculent criticism of your painting betrayed some jealousy. By looking at the position of the word, the reader can judge that the word modifies a noun and therefore it is an adjective. This can limit the choice of meaning he is going to make.”
  2. “Inflectional clues, e.g. Mrs. Ames scrounged around the empty lot for sharp objects. The inflection -ed shows that scrounged must be an action (a verb) indicating what Mrs. Ames did in the past.”
  3. “Markers. A verb marker (was, had, will, etc.), for example, indicates that a verb follows. A noun marker (the, a, an, etc.) shows that a noun follows, e.g. They were jubilating about his amazing recovery.”

Picture Clues-

This is where illustrations such as pictures and drawings are used to aid in the identification of words. Therefore, if there is a photo/picture of a dog leaping with an accompanied text, then the most possible word that would come to mind is jump.

 

 

 

2nd Strategy

  • Rhyming  and word family:

            Rhyming and Word Family is also an important strategy to enable word recognition. Firstly, it must be noted that words are grouped into families which share the same sounds and common letters. For example mop, shop, and top are a part of the same word family because they have “op” at the end. With this in mind, teachers can use r

hymes in games and also nursery rhymes to introduce and clarify word recognition. For example in the nursery rhyme “Hey diddle diddle, the cat and the fiddle..” the teacher can use the word “cat” to introduce words in that family such as “mat, sat, bat and rat,” while rhyming “cat.”


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References

Andayani,A,k .Semantic and Syntactic Clues as Vocabulary Strategies in Reading         Comprehension. Available at:             http://www.angelfire.com/journal/fsulimelight/context.html. Retrieved 2013.

Elsworth,S. What Is the Difference Between Sight Vocabulary & Meaning Vocabulary?.           Available   at:vocabulary_.html#ixzz2NHMjoSYT. 1999.

Power,B. What Are the Seven Reading Comprehension Strategies?. Available at:

http://www.choiceliteracy.com/articles-detail-view.php?id=85. 2013.

Word Recognition Skills and Strategies. Available at:     http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/teach/rec.html. 1997

Wolf,L. Word Recognition Skills & Strategies. Available           at:http://www.ehow.com/list_6681356_word-recognition-            skills-   strategies.html#ixzz2NH4jLDNM. 2013.

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Creating an “ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY.”

ImageANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

If you are writing a term paper or researching a particular subject, it may be necessary to provide examples of annotated bibliography. This is a short piece that describes and evaluates the material. The purpose of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of the sources cited.

CONTENTS OF AN ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

  • A bibliographic citation formatted in the documentation style required for your course.
  • An abstract (brief summary) of the source.
  • A short reflection about the significance of the article and its relevance for your research project.

THE PROCESS

First, locate and record citations to books, periodicals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas on your topic. Briefly examine and review the actual items. Then choose those works that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise annotation that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article.

WRITING THE ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

When writing an abstract about the source, ask yourself these questions:

  • Purpose : Why was the book or article written?
  • Content: What is the resource about?

After the abstract, write a short evaluation of the work. Consider these questions:

  • Usefulness: Why is the work significant for the research project you are developing?
  • Reliability:  Is the information accurate? Do other sources support the conclusions?
  • Authority:  Is it written by someone who has the expertise to author the information?
  • Currency:   Is it new? Is it up-to-date for the topic?
  • Ease of use : Who is the intended audience? 

 

Template that  can  be followed. 

 

SEARCH STRATEGY

 

Research Topic:

  1. Write down the topic that you will be researching (this can be a question or phrase)

 

 

  1. Broad Subject Area (eg. Education, Psychology)

 

 

  1. Briefly state reasons for choice of this topic. Include definitions of any unfamiliar words.

 

 

  1. Keywords (Identify the key concepts which you will use to conduct your search) Place at least two alternative keywords/phrases that describe that concept. Eg. Topic: Obesity in Children

         

Concept 1

Concept 2

Concept 3

Obesity

Children

 

overweight

infants

 

fat

youngsters

 

 

 

 

 Add more columns or rows if they are needed.

  1. Limits to the search (Do you want to limit your search, for eg. Dates, geographical location.

 

  1. Do you know of any organization that might have published information on your topic? List these.

 

 BOOK RECORD 

 

Provide book details as follows:

Author:

Title:

Year of publication:

Place of publication:

Publisher:

Edition:

Call number:

 

Please state whether it was card or online catalogue which led you to this book:

 

Include a photocopy of the title page of this book.

 

Write an annotated bibliography on the book using the format given above. 

 

       

 

                                            JOURNAL RECORD 

 

Name of the database from which this was retrieved:

 

Details of journal article

Author (s):

Year of Publication:

Article Title:

Journal Title:

Volume number:

Issue Number:

Page Number:

 

Include a photocopy of the first page of the journal article if this is available..

 

Write an annotated bibliography for the article.

               

 NEWSPAPER RECORD 

 

Name of the print or online newspaper from which this was retrieved:

 

Details of newspaper article

Author (s):

Year of Publication:

Article Title:

Page Number:

 

Write an annotated bibliography for the article.

 

                                                           Website Record

 

Name of Website:

URL (Website Address):

Date Accessed:

Name of Search Engine:

What does the URL tell you about the site?

 

 

Authority

Who is the author of this site and does it tell you what their qualifications are for writing it?

Do they belong to, or are they writing on behalf of any organization?

 

References

Is there a Works Cited or Reference List?

Does the source provide links or references to other credible sources?

 

Bias

Is the language objective or emotional?

Does the author acknowledge differing viewpoints?

Are the various perspectives presented fairly?

 

Accuracy

Does the information on the site appear to be reliable?

Can you see any errors?

Are there any sections that gives you more details e.g. bibliographies?

 

Currency

Does the site have any indication of how recently it was written or updated?

Does this matter for your chosen research?

Who is the intended audience and does the site make this clear?

Does the site provide you with useful information for your subject?

  Reflective Summary

(This should include an evaluation of the whole search process and where applicable include recommendations for future development.)